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A total of 140,026 men and 156,810 women aged 40-79 years from the 3 cohorts were included in this study (Table 1). The mean follow-up period (standard deviation) was 8.5 2.7 years, 9.9 2.2 years, 10.4 1.6 years, and 10.2 1.7 years for the Three-Prefecture Study, JACC Study, and JPHC-I and -II Studies, respectively. The prevalence of smokers in each cohort is shown in Table 1. The age-adjusted death rate by cohort, sex, and smoking status was separately calculated for the age groups of 40-69 years and 70 years or older and based on the sex- and 5-year age-specific death rates was classified according to the smoking status of each cohort. The standard population was constituted of age-specific numbers of persons who were followed-up at the attained age. The adjusted death rates in smokers and nonsmokers varied slightly between cohorts, and the rate ratios of smokers/nonsmokers were approximately 1.5-1.8 in men and 1.4-2.1 in women.
The characteristics of all the subjects are shown in Table 2. The mean age (standard deviation) was 54.1 9.7 years in men and 54.5 9.8 years in women. The prevalence of male smokers was 54.4% overall and 59.5%, 54.2%, 55.6%, and 42.5%, respectively, for the age groups of 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years. There were 25.1% male ex-smokers and 20.5% male never-smokers. Amongst women, 8.1% were smokers (9.5%, 7.5%, 6.8%, and 8.5%, respectively, for the age groups mentioned above); 2.4% were ex-smokers; and 89.5% were never-smokers. The smokers were further classified according to the number of cigarettes consumed per day, and the ex-smokers were categorized by the age at which they stopped smoking.
At age 40 years, the life expectancy was 38.5 years (95% CI: 38.3 and 38.7) for male smokers, 40.8 years (95% CI: 40.6 and 41.0) for ex-smokers, and 43.2 years (95% CI: 42.2 and 42.7) for never-smokers (Table 3). For women, the corresponding life expectancies at age 40 years were 42.4 (95% CI: 42.1 and 43.0), 43.1 (95% CI: 42.1 and 43.5), and 46.8 (95% CI: 46.0 and 46.3) years (Table 3). Both male and female heavy smokers had slightly shorter life expectancies than those of light smokers. Male ex-smokers who quit before age 40 years had a slightly longer life expectancy (43.3 years, 95% CI: 42.6 and 43.9) than that of never-smokers. Male ex-smokers who quit smoking at younger age had a longer life expectancy than that of ex-smokers who quit at older age.
This study was based on data from cohort studies, but a current life table was constructed from the age-specific death rates calculated from the cross-sectional summation of observed person-years and the number of deaths at each age. Cohort subjects in age ranges 40-59, 40-69, and 40-79 years were followed up during the 1990s over approximately 10 years. We compared the life expectancy in this study with the life table to Japan in 1995, which was constructed at around the mid-point of the follow-up period of our examined cohorts.17 Life expectancy at age 40 years for the entire population in this study was 40.2 years for men and 46.3 years for women, whereas in the 1995 life table for Japan, the life expectancies for men and women were 37.9 and 43.9 years respectively.17 These figures were not directly comparable because the methods used to calculate them were different. The difference between smoking status should be considered.
There were some limitations in our study. Misclassification of smokers and never-smokers may have occurred. For example, those classified as smokers at the time of baseline survey, who subsequently quit smoking, could have contributed to a lower mortality rate in the smoker group because of improved health. This misclassification may be largely because of contemporaneous tobacco-free promotions. Such misclassification may also have occurred in our study. To reduce this possibility, it would be useful to collect data regarding changed smoking status during follow up. In women, the small number of observations in smokers and ex-smokers may have decreased the reliability of their results although the survival of heavy smokers was shorter than that of light smokers, and the survival of ex-smokers was between those of never-smokers and smokers.
Reduced life expectancy due to smoking has been shown in previous studies. In the United States, the life expectancy of smokers of both sexes was reported to be approximately 7 years less than that of nonsmokers, as determined from data sets including smoking status just prior to death.4 In Australia, in the mid-1980s, the difference in the life expectancies of 15-year-old males who had never smoked and those who were heavy smokers was estimated as 5.6 years. However, this estimate was based on a projection using age-specific mortality and an etiological fraction for smoking determined by the indirect method.5 Based on population studies in Copenhagen, the reduction in the life expectancy of heavy smokers was 9.2 years in men and 9.4 years in women; this difference is large compared with other studies and may be because data regarding changed smoking status was repeatedly collected during follow up.6 In a Danish National Cohort Study, the life expectancy at age 20 was 7 years less for heavy smokers than for subjects who had never smoked, and that at age 65 years was 5 years less in both men and women smokers. This was determined by estimating smoking-attributable mortality rates and using them for constructing a life table.7 In the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry Study, the life expectancies of male current smokers were 5.3 and 5.7 years shorter than those of never-smokers in the 2 groups with lower cholesterol levels; the life expectancies were estimated using absolute risk and absolute excess risk.8 In the Framingham Heart Study, the difference in the life expectancy at age 50 between subjects who had never smoked and those classified as always smokers was reported as 8.66 years in men and 7.59 years in women; in this study, the smoking status was determined in biennial exams during follow up.9
When it comes to sexy pics from an ex, consider thinking about why you want to keep these files on hand. But remember: Keeping an ex's naked photos for potential future revenge isn't OK, and probably not something you'd be OK with if the situation were reversed. Don't hesitate to hit delete if there's any lingering resentment. 1e1e36bf2d